Early Childhood Education

Praxis® Overview

Students enter the program in the non-licensure Child and Youth Development major. Students must pass the "Praxis I: Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST) in Reading, Writing, and Mathematics" by the end of TERM 1 to enter the licensure track and be admitted to the teacher education program. If the PPST is passed at a later date, students may reapply for admission to the teacher education program.

Licensure students must also successfully complete the following Praxis II exams (early completion is strongly recommended) before they are eligible for licensure:

0521 Principles of Learning and Teaching: Early Childhood
0021 Education of Young Children
0014 Elementary Education: Content Knowledge
0201 Reading Across the Curriculum: Elementary

Non-licensure students must successfully complete Praxis II 0021 Education of Young Children.

What Are the Praxis I® Tests?
Praxis I: Pre-Professional Skills Tests (PPST®) are designed to measure basic skills in reading, writing and mathematics. The reading, writing, and mathematics assessments are available in two formats: paper-based or computer-based.

Who Takes the Tests and Why?
Colleges and universities may use Praxis I: Pre-Professional Skills Tests to evaluate individuals for entry into teacher education programs. The assessments are generally taken early in your college career.

Where Do People Take the Tests?
Computer-based tests are offered by appointment through a national network of Prometric™ Testing Centers (many Prometric Testing Centers are located inside Sylvan Learning Centers) and select colleges and universities. Or you can select paper-based tests when you register. Visit www.ets.org/praxis and click on "Test Centers & Dates" for testing locations in your area.

How Does the Computer-based Test Work?
Each part of the computer-based test is two hours long (to allow for tutorials and the collection of background information from test takers). However, the actual testing time for each part of the test is as follows:

Test No. of Questions No. of Minutes
Reading 46 75
Mathematics 46 75
Writing 44 38
Writing 1 essay 30

The Computerized PPST in Reading, Mathematics and Writing is also offered as a combined test that will be delivered as a single testing session. The combined test will consist of four separately timed sections: Reading, Mathematics, Multiple-Choice Writing and Essay Writing. There will be an optional 15-minute break between the Mathematics and Writing Sections of the test. Individual scores will be reported for Reading, Mathematics and Writing.

The testing session for the combined test is set for 4-1/2 hours. This allows enough time for tutorials and the collection of background information. The actual testing time for each section is the same as the individual tests.

By using a special tool that marks answers, you can proceed without answering a question and go back to it, or mark a question you have answered and go back to review or change it. A review screen will tell you if a question has been answered, not yet seen, or marked for review.

Pay close attention to the number of questions and the amount of time remaining to be sure you are making good progress through the test. If a question is difficult or unfamiliar, try to eliminate some of the possible answer choices and make an educated guess based on the remaining options.

How Does the Paper-based Test Work?
The Pre-Professional Skills Tests (PPST®) in Reading and Mathematics consist of 40 multiple-choice questions with 60 minutes of testing time. The Writing test consists of 38 multiple-choice questions and 1 essay question with two 30-minute sections of testing time.

Can I Prepare Before Taking Either Type of Test?
Before taking the test, we suggest you review The Praxis Series 2008-09 Information Bulletin (PDF). The Bulletin provides information on test taking. The Tests at a Glance contains information about test content and provides sample test questions. Study guides are available in the CASE Center in the Clark Teacher Education Center. Milligan also offers tutoring and test preparation. Ask your advisor.

What Is My Score Based On?
In either type of test, all test takers receive a score regardless of the number of questions answered. Your score is based on the number of questions you answer correctly, with no penalty incurred or subtraction for answering a question incorrectly. It is to your advantage to pace yourself so that you have enough time to carefully consider every question

What Are the Score Requirements?
Candidates seeking admission to approved teacher education programs in Tennessee colleges and universities shall attain scores as follows on either the Pre-Professional Skills Tests (PPST®) or the Computer-Based Academic Skills Assessments.

  Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST®) Computer-Based Academic Skills Assessments (CBT)
Mathematics 173 318
Reading 174 321
Writing 173 319

What are the Fees for the Tests and Related Services?
The Paper Based Test includes a $50 registration fee charged once per testing year plus $40 for each Praxis I (PPST®) test.

The Computer-based (PPST®) test can be taken as separate tests or as a combined test in a single testing session. Cost is $80 for 1 test, $120 for 2 tests, $160 for 3 tests, or $130 for a combined test.

For detailed registration and fee information, visit www.ets.org/praxis.  

More Information
See the Milligan College Catalog, the ETS website, or contact your academic advisor.